Papanastasiou P, Pirandola S, 2021, ‘Continuous-variable quantum cryptography with discrete alphabets: Composable security under collective Gaussian attacks’, Phys. Rev. Research 3, 013047. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.013047
We consider continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete-alphabet encodings. In particular, we study protocols where information is encoded in the phase of displaced coherent (or thermal) states, even though the results can be directly extended to any protocol based on finite constellations of displaced Gaussian states. In this setting, we study the composable security in the finite-size regime assuming the realistic but restrictive hypothesis of collective Gaussian attacks. Under this assumption, we can efficiently estimate the parameters of the channel via maximum likelihood estimators and bound the corresponding error in the final secret key rate.