Latest Research

Home>Latest Research>Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with Arbitrarily Small Nonlocality

Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with Arbitrarily Small Nonlocality

Wooltorton L, Brown P, Colbeck R. Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with Arbitrarily Small Nonlocality. Phys. Rev. Lett. 132, 210802. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.210802

Device-independent quantum key distribution allows two users to set up shared cryptographic key without the need to trust the quantum devices used. Doing so requires nonlocal correlations between the users. However, in Farkas et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 050503 (2021)] it was shown that for known protocols nonlocality is not always sufficient, leading to the question of whether there is a fundamental lower bound on the minimum amount of nonlocality needed for any device-independent quantum key distribution implementation. Here, we show that no such bound exists, giving schemes that achieve key with correlations arbitrarily close to the local set. Furthermore, some of our constructions achieve the maximum of 1 bit of key per pair of entangled qubits. We achieve this by studying a family of Bell inequalities that constitute all self-tests of the maximally entangled state with a single linear Bell expression. Within this family there exist nonlocal correlations with the property that one pair of inputs yield outputs arbitrarily close to perfect key. Such correlations exist for a range of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt values, including those arbitrarily close to the classical bound. Finally, we show the existence of quantum correlations that can generate both perfect key and perfect randomness simultaneously, while also displaying arbitrarily small Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation. This opens up the possibility of a new class of cryptographic protocol.